Manufacturing process by which a liquid material is usually poured into a mould, which contains a hollow cavity of the desired shape, and then allowed to solidify. The solidified part is also known as a casting, which is ejected or broken out of the mold to complete the process. Casting materials are usually metals or various cold setting materials that cure after mixing two or more components together; examples are epoxy, concrete, plaster and clay. Casting is most often used for making complex shapes that would be otherwise difficult or uneconomical to make by other methods.
Chemical sand casting: Involves the development of prepared sand mold with a mixture of resins, the curing of these resins may be for a third component liquid or gas, or autocure. This increases the rigidity of the mold, allowing larger pieces melt and better surface finish.
Dry sand molding: Dry sand is a mixture of dry silica sand, attached to other materials than the clay using fast curing adhesives. Before casting, the mold is dried at high temperatures (between 200-
Mechanical molding: It consists in the automation of green sand casting. The generation of the mold by mechanical or hydraulic presses, produces dense and resistant molds which overcome the shortcomings of traditional green sand molding. You can find vertical molding and horizontal molding.
Investment casting or lost wax casting: In this case, the model is made in wax or plastic. Once obtained, is covered with a series of two layers, the first of a material that ensures a good surface finish, and the second of a refractory material that provide rigidity. Once the mold is completed, it is heated to harden the coating and melt the wax or plastic to remove the mold in which molten metal poured later.
Other casting processes are: Die casting (in this case, the mould is metal); injection molding; casting pressed; low pressure casting; centrifugal casting.